neighbouring group participation

Also contains definitions of: anchimeric assistance, synartetic acceleration
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.N04100
The direct interaction of the reaction centre (usually, but not necessarily, an incipient @C00811@) with a lone pair of electrons of an atom or with the electrons of a σ- or π-bond contained within the parent molecule but not conjugated with the reaction centre. A distinction is sometimes made between n-, σ- and π-participation. A rate increase due to neighbouring group participation is known as 'anchimeric assistance'. 'Synartetic acceleration' is the special case of anchimeric assistance ascribed to participation by electrons binding a substituent to a carbon atom in a β-position relative to the @L03493@ attached to the α-carbon atom. According to the underlying model, these electrons then provide a three-centre bond (or '@B00736@') 'fastening together' (as the word 'synartetic' is intended to suggest) the α- and β-carbon atoms between which the charge is divided in the intermediate @B00737@ formed (and in the @T06468@ preceding its formation). The term synartetic acceleration is not widely used.
See also:
intramolecular catalysis
,
multi-centre bond
Source:
PAC, 1994, 66, 1077. (Glossary of terms used in physical organic chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1994)) on page 1145 [Terms] [Paper]