osmotic pressure, \(\pi\)

Excess pressure required to maintain osmotic equilibrium between a solution and the pure solvent separated by a @MT06878@ permeable only to the solvent: \[\mathit{\Pi }=- \frac{R\ T}{V_{\mathrm{A}}}\ \ln a_{\mathrm{A}}\] where \(V_{\mathrm{A}}\), \(a_{\mathrm{A}}\) are the partial molar volume and activity of solvent \(\mathrm{A}\) for an incompressible fluid. For ideal dilute solutions, \(\mathit{\Pi }=c_{\text{B}}\ R\ T=\rho _{\mathrm{B}}\ \frac{R\ T}{M_{\mathrm{B}}}\), where entities \(\mathrm{B}\) are individually moving solute molecules, ions, etc., regardless of their nature, \(c_{\text{B}}\), \(\rho _{\mathrm{B}}\) are the amount and mass concentration of the solutes, and \(M_{\mathrm{B}}\) is the mass average molar mass of the solutes. The amount is sometimes expressed in osmol (meaning a @M03980@ of osmotically active entities), but this usage and the corresponding term @O04343@ are discouraged.
Green Book, 2nd ed., p. 51 [Terms] [Book]
Green Book, 3rd ed., p. 59 [Terms] [Book]