Takes place when an atom or molecule interacts with a heated surface or is in a gaseous environment at high temperature. Examples of the latter may be a capillary arc plasma, a microwave plasma or an inductively coupled plasma.
Orange Book, 2nd ed., p. 203 (https://media.iupac.org/publications/analytical_compendium/)
PAC, 1991, 63, 1541. 'Recommendations for nomenclature and symbolism for mass spectroscopy (including an appendix of terms used in vacuum technology). (Recommendations 1991)' on page 1548 (https://doi.org/10.1351/pac199163101541)