enthalpy of activation, \(\Delta ^{\ddagger }H^{\circ}\)

The standard @E02141@ of @A00093@ \(\Delta ^{\ddagger }H\text{^{\circ} }\) is the @E02141@ change that appears in the thermodynamic form of the rate equation obtained from conventional @T06470@. This equation is only correct for a first order reaction, for which the @R05138@ has the dimension reciprocal time. For a second order reaction, for which the @R05138@ has the dimension (reciprocal time) × (reciprocal concentration), the left hand side should be read as \(k\ c\text{^{\circ} }\), where \(c\text{^{\circ} }\) denotes the @S05909@ (usually \(1\ \mathrm{mol}\ \mathrm{dm}^{- 3}\)). \[k=\frac{k_{\text{B}}\ T}{h}\ \mathrm{e}^{\frac{\Delta ^{\ddagger }S\text{^{\circ} }}{R}}\ \mathrm{e}^{\frac{- \Delta ^{\ddagger }H\text{^{\circ} }}{R\ T}}\] The quantity \(\Delta ^{\ddagger }S\text{^{\circ} }\) is the standard @E02150@, and care must be taken with standard states. In this equation \(k_{\text{B}}\) is the @B00695@, \(T\) the absolute temperature, \(h\) the @P04685@, and \(R\) the @G02579@. The @E02141@ of @A00093@ is approximately equal to the @A00102@; the conversion of one into the other depends on the @M03989@. The @E02141@ of @A00093@ is always the standard quantity, although the word standard and the superscript \(\text{^{\circ} }\) on the symbol are often omitted. The symbol is frequently (but incorrectly) written \(\Delta H^{\ddagger }\), where the standard symbol is omitted and the \(\ddagger \) is placed after the \(H\).
Green Book, 2nd ed., p. 56 [Terms] [Book]
PAC, 1993, 65, 2291. (Nomenclature of kinetic methods of analysis (IUPAC Recommendations 1993)) on page 2294 [Terms] [Paper]
PAC, 1994, 66, 1077. (Glossary of terms used in physical organic chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1994)) on page 1113 [Terms] [Paper]
PAC, 1996, 68, 149. (A glossary of terms used in chemical kinetics, including reaction dynamics (IUPAC Recommendations 1996)) on page 164 [Terms] [Paper]