A process by which solid residues with increasing content of the element carbon are formed from organic material usually by @P04961@ in an @I03026@ atmosphere.
As with all pyrolytic reactions, carbonization is a complex process in which many reactions take place concurrently such as dehydrogenation, condensation, hydrogen transfer and @I03295@. It differs from @C01120@ in that its reaction rate is faster by many orders of magnitude. The final @P04961@ temperature applied controls the degree of carbonization and the residual content of foreign elements, e.g. at \(T \sim 1200\ \text{K}\) the carbon content of the residue exceeds a @M03722@ of 90 wt.%, whereas at \(T \sim 1600\ \text{K}\) more than 99 wt.% carbon is found.
PAC, 1995, 67, 473. (Recommended terminology for the description of carbon as a solid (IUPAC Recommendations 1995)) on page 484 [Terms] [Paper]