In strict definition, an experimentally observable effect (on rates of reaction, etc.) of the @T06477@ of charge through a chain of atoms by electrostatic induction. A theoretical distinction may be made between the @F02358@, and the inductive effect as models for the @C01365@ interaction between a given site within a @M03986@ and a remote unipole or dipole within the same entity. The experimental distinction between the two effects has proved difficult, except for molecules of peculiar geometry, which may exhibit 'reversed field effects'. Ordinarily the inductive effect and the @F02358@ are influenced in the same direction by structural changes in the molecule and the distinction between them is not clear. This situation has led many authors to include the @F02358@ in the term 'inductive effect'. Thus the separation of values into inductive and @R05326@ components does not imply the exclusive operation of a through-bonds route for the @T06477@ of the non-conjugative part of the substituent effect. To indicate the all-inclusive use of the term inductive, the phrase 'so-called inductive effect' is sometimes used. Certain modern theoretical approaches suggest that the 'so-called inductive effect' reflects a @F02358@ rather than through-bonds @T06477@.
See also:
mesomeric effect
polar effect
PAC, 1994, 66, 1077. (Glossary of terms used in physical organic chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1994)) on page 1124 [Terms] [Paper]