Separation based mainly upon exclusion effects, such as differences in molecular size and/or shape (e.g. molecular-sieve @C01075@) or in charge (e.g. ion-@E02261@). The term @G02600@-permeation @C01075@ is widely used for the process when the stationary phase is a @G02600@. The term @G02600@-@F02388@ is not recommended.