Swain–Lupton equation

A dual parameter approach to the @C01346@ of substituent effects, which involves a field constant (\(F\)) and a @R05326@ constant (\(R\)). The original treatment was modified later. The procedure has been considerably applied, but also much criticized.
PAC, 1994, 66, 1077. (Glossary of terms used in physical organic chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1994)) on page 1170 [Terms] [Paper]