effective charge

Change in effective charge is a quantity obtained by comparison of the @P04709@ of substituents on the free energies of rate or equilibrium processes with that on a standard @I03183@ equilibrium. Provided the effective charges on the states in the standard equilibrium are defined, then it is possible to measure effective charges for states in the reaction or equilibrium under consideration.
PAC, 1994, 66, 1077. (Glossary of terms used in physical organic chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1994)) on page 1108 [Terms] [Paper]